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太魯閣國家公園鳥類族群健康風險監測計畫

發佈日期:民國106年01月20日 1319
研究單位
國立東華大學

摘要

關鍵詞:太魯閣國家公園、鳥類、繫放、血液寄生蟲
 
一、研究緣起
國家公園園區內的生物可能因為人類的開墾活動和遊憩行為,以及區外生物的移入等原因,帶入一些污染物質或傳染性疾病等影響生物生存的威脅因子。調查並監測這些威脅因子在區內生物體內的狀況,有助於瞭解園區內生物的健康狀況,並進而採取適當的保育措施。中橫公路貫穿太魯閣國家公園園區,園區內的遊客車輛將大量汽車廢氣引入園區內、園區內的農業活動和遊憩設施也可能帶物許多污染物質、每年冬季為數眾多的候鳥也可能將一些傳染性疾病(例如禽流感、禽瘧疾等)帶入園區的野生鳥類中。在過去的研究中已經針對太魯閣地區土壤有機污染物、重金屬含量、鳥類血液寄生蟲、禽瘧疾等進行過調查。本計畫選擇指標性鳥類,探討血液寄生蟲盛行率,以及盛行率在不同年間的變化,評估對野生動物生存的可能影響。
 
二、研究方法及過程
鳥類繫放
在太魯閣國家公園內的西寶、蓮花池、洛韶、合歡農場等地進行鳥類繫放。每月進行二次、每次三天的鳥類繫放作業。主要繫放種類為園區內數量較多的小型鳥類。繫放以霧網捕捉,捕捉到的個體分別記錄捕獲日期和地點,並在跗蹠骨套上有編號的金屬環、測量各項形值測量、採集幾根胸羽、自腋下靜脈採集約20 ul的血液等。完成操作的個體立即於原地野放。此外,整理歷年標誌鳥類的繫放—回收紀錄,選擇歷年繫放數量較多12種留鳥,分析他們在樣區中的出現季節,並分析其中山紅頭和粉紅鸚嘴標誌個體的回收狀況,探討他們在樣區中居留的狀況。
鳥類血液寄生蟲的篩檢
選擇太魯閣地區最普遍的冬候鳥黑臉鵐和繫放數量最多的留鳥山紅頭做為血液寄生蟲的主要監測對象。利用繫放時採得的血液樣本萃取DNA,以巢式聚合酶連鎖反應(nested polymerase chain reaction, nested PCR)增幅瘧原蟲粒線體DNA細胞色素b(cytochrome b, cyt-b)基因的部分片段,檢測個體是否感染血液寄生蟲。感染的個體則將PCR的產物加以定序,確認其基因單型。
 
三、重要發現
鳥類繫放
本年度共進行19次的繫放作業,一共捕捉了63種、1231隻、1411隻次鳥,其中979隻為本年度新增上環的個體。在崇德繫放了赤翡翠、北蝗鶯、布氏葦鶯和黃眉黃鶲等4種太魯閣地區的新紀錄鳥種。回收到野鴝、黃尾鴝、樹鷚和黑臉鵐等4種、15隻冬候鳥的跨季回收。整理歷年山紅頭和粉紅鸚嘴的繫放-回收紀錄,發現56.3%的山紅頭在首次繫放後即未再被回收,而粉紅鸚嘴只有39.6%的個體未被回收。大部分的回收紀錄都是在繫放後一年內被回收,二種鳥都有少數個體在繫放5年之後再被回收。有較高比例的雌鳥在繫放後就沒有再回收,而有回收紀錄的個體中,雄鳥所佔的比例略高於雌鳥。
 
鳥類血液寄生蟲的篩檢
2015-2016年度冬季所採得的黑臉鵐,血液寄生蟲的盛行率為26.1%,與歷年黑臉鵐血液寄生蟲的盛行率相近,感染的個體中,共檢測出7個基因單型的瘧原蟲和2個基因單型的血液變形蟲,基因單型多樣性為0.8。同一隻個體在不同度冬季會檢測出不同基因單型的血液寄生蟲。山紅頭的檢測結果則顯示血液寄生蟲的盛行率高達67.4%,基因單型多樣性為0.034。與2009-2010年的篩檢結果相比,血液寄生蟲的盛行率逐年增加,而基因單型的多樣性則逐年降低,呈現寄生蟲在宿主體內有專一化的現象。高海拔地區鳥類的篩檢結果顯示盛行率較2009-2011年的盛行率高,10種鳥類中有5種在二次檢測都未被檢出,而冠羽畫眉和黃胸藪眉血液寄生蟲的盛行率較前次檢測時高出許多。
以山紅頭的尾羽比較在農耕地和廢棄農地羽毛含鉛量的差異,檢測結果均未驗出重金屬鉛。
 
四、主要建議事項
根據本年度研究成果及研究過程中的發現和心得,提出以下二項建議:
建議一
持續進行鳥類的長期繫放:中長期建議
主辦機關:太魯閣國家公園管理處
協辦機關:具鳥類繫放經驗的研究單位或民間團體
建議二
太魯閣國家公園鳥類遺傳多樣性研究:中長期建議
主辦機關:太魯閣國家公園管理處
協辦機關:鳥類研究單位

Abstract
Keywords: Bird, Birds Banding, Haemosporidian, Taroko National Park
 
In this study, we continued the bird banding project in Taroko National Park. During the banding operation, we collected blood samples from the bird caught. Combined with previous banding-recapture records, we presented the recapture records of two common species. Using a nested polymerase chain reaction, we examined the prevalence of blood parasites in selected species and compared the results with previous studies to reveal the temporal change of the prevalence of blood parasites in birds. A total of 63 species, 1231 birds were caught during the study period. Among them, 979 were newly banded. Four species were banded in the Taroko region for the first time, including Ruddy Kingfisher (Halcyon coromanda), Middendorff's Grasshopper-Warbler (Locustella ochotensis), Blyth's Reed-Warbler (Acrocephalus dumetorum) and Narcissus Flycatcher (Ficedula narcissina). Fifteen migratory birds (from four species) were recaptured which were first banded in previous years. The recapture data showed that 56.3% of the Rufous-capped Babbler (Cyanoderma ruficeps) were never recaptured after their first capture, however, only 39.6% of the Vinous-throated Parrotbill (Sinosuthora webbiana) was not recaptured after release. For both species, some individuals have been recaptured after more than five years. Among birds who were recaptured at more than one year later, male occupied a slightly higher percentage than females.
For the blood parasite prevalence, the prevalence in the Black-faced Bunting (Emberiza spodocephala) is 26.1% with a high parasite haplotype diversity of 0.8. These results were similar to the results from 2009-2012. An individual might infect different parasites in different years. In the resident Rufous-capped Babbler, the prevalence was 67.4%, which is higher than the results of 2009 and 2010. However, the haplotype diversity was very low (0.034), indicated that specific parasite haplotype is becoming a specialist in infecting the Rufous-capped Babbler. The blood parasite prevalence in birds from high elevation banding site was low (7.5%), but higher than the prevalence in 2009-2011. Among the 10 species examined, five species were not infected in both time period. The prevalence increased greatly in Taiwan Yuhina (Yuhina brunneiceps) and Steere's Liocichla (Liocichla steerii). The results highlight a potential threat of this parasite disease moving toward higher elevation.

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